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List of solar system objects by mass

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List of solar system objects: By orbitBy massBy radiusBy name
See also: Solar system

This is a list of solar system objects by mass, in decreasing order. This list is incomplete because the masses of many minor planets are not accurately known.

The ordering is not similar to the order of a list of solar system objects by radius. Some objects are smaller, but denser, than others. Neptune, for example, is more massive than Uranus despite being smaller. Likewise, Mercury is much more massive than both Ganymede and Titan despite being smaller.

Graph showing relative masses 2

The image is of the masses of the heaviest objects

Note: Satellites have been designated by an asterisk.

Yottagram range

Following is a list of solar system objects more massive than 1021 kilograms (one Yottagram [Yg]). Even the least massive of these objects is an approximate sphere.[1] Eris, a new trans-Neptunian object, is larger than Pluto but has an undetermined mass. An estimate is listed. See also List of planetary bodies.

Photographs of objects are on a black background; artists' impressions are on a grey background.
Rank Name Image Mass in Yg Mass in kg Type of object
1 Sun
Sun
1,988,435,000 Yg (1.988435 × 1030 kg) star
2 Jupiter
Jupiter
1,899,000 Yg(1.899 × 1027 kg) 5th planet
3 Saturn
Saturn
568,460 Yg(5.6846 × 1026 kg) 6th planet
4 Neptune
Neptune
102,430 Yg(1.0243 × 1026 kg) 8th planet
5 Uranus
Uranus
86,832 Yg(8.6832 × 1025 kg) 7th planet
6 Earth
Earth
5,974.2 Yg(5.9742 × 1024 kg) 3rd planet
7 Venus
Venus
4,868.5 Yg(4.8685 × 1024 kg) 2nd planet
8 Mars
Mars
641.85 Yg(6.4185 × 1023 kg) 4th planet
9 Mercury
Mercury
330.2 Yg(3.302 × 1023 kg) 1st planet
10 * Ganymede
Ganymede
148.2 Yg(1.482 × 1023 kg) satellite of Jupiter
11 * Titan
Titan
134.5 Yg(1.345 × 1023 kg) satellite of Saturn
12 * Callisto 107.6 Yg(1.076 × 1023 kg) satellite of Jupiter
13 * Io
Io
89.3 Yg(8.9319 × 1022 kg) satellite of Jupiter
14 * Moon
Moon
73.5 Yg(7.3477 × 1022 kg) satellite of Earth
15 * Europa
Europa
48.0 Yg(4.80 × 1022 kg) satellite of Jupiter
16 * Triton
Triton
21.5 Yg(2.147 × 1022 kg) satellite of Neptune
17 Eris
Eris
~16 Yg(~1.6 × 1022 kg)[2] dwarf planet
18 Pluto
Pluto
13.1 Yg(1.305 ± 0.007 × 1022 kg) dwarf planet
19 (136108) 2003 EL61
("Santa")
4.2 Yg(4.2 ± 0.1 × 1021 kg) Kuiper belt object
20 * Titania 3.5 Yg(3.526 × 1021 kg) satellite of Uranus
21 * Oberon 3.0 Yg(3.014 × 1021 kg) satellite of Uranus
22 90377 Sedna ~3 Yg(~3 × 1021 kg) TNO
23 * Rhea
Rhea
2.3 Yg(2.3166 × 1021 kg) satellite of Saturn
24 50000 Quaoar ~2 Yg(~2 × 1021 kg) TNO
25 * Iapetus
Iapetus
2.0 Yg(1.9739 × 1021 kg) satellite of Saturn
26 * Charon
Charon
1.5 Yg(1.52 ± 0.06 × 1021 kg) satellite of Pluto
27 * Ariel 1.4 Yg(1.35 × 1021 kg) satellite of Uranus
28 * Umbriel 1.2 Yg(1.2 × 1021 kg) satellite of Uranus
29 * Dione
Dione
1.1 Yg(1.096 × 1021 kg) satellite of Saturn
Leading asterisks (*) mark satellites.

Zettagram range

Objects of mass between 1018 kg to 1021 kg (1 to 1000 Zettagrams (Zg) ). The larger objects in this range, such as Tethys, Ceres, and Mimas, have relaxed to an equilibrium oblate spheroid due to their gravity, while the less massive (e. g. Amalthea and Janus) are roughly rounded, but not spherical, dubbed "irregular".

All the spheroidal bodies have some polar flattening due to the centrifugal force from their rotation, but a characteristic feature of the "irregular"-shaped bodies is that there is a significant difference in the length of their two equatorial diameters.

It has been suggested that trans-Neptunian objects be cut off around 1020 kg (see discussion).

Template:Incomplete list

Name Image Mass in kg Type of object Shape
Ceres
Ceres Hubble sing
(9.5 × 1020 kg) dwarf planet oblate spheroid
90482 Orcus (~6.2 × 1020 kg) TNO unknown
* Tethys
Tethys cassini
(6.173 × 1020 kg) satellite of Saturn prolate spheroid
20000 Varuna (~5.9 × 1020 kg) TNO unknown
4 Vesta
Vesta-HST
(2.7 × 1020 kg) asteroid oblate spheroid
15874 1996 TL66 (~2.6 × 1020 kg) SDO unknown
2 Pallas (2.2 × 1020 kg) asteroid irregular
* Enceladus (1.08 × 1020 kg) satellite of Saturn prolate spheroid
10 Hygiea (9.0 × 1019 kg) asteroid irregular
704 Interamnia (7 × 1019 kg) asteroid irregular
* Miranda (6.59 × 1019 kg) satellite of Uranus prolate spheroid
* Proteus (5 × 1019 kg) satellite of Neptune irregular
52 Europa (~5 × 1019 kg) asteroid irregular
* Mimas (3.752 × 1019 kg) satellite of Saturn prolate spheroid
511 Davida (3.6 × 1019 kg) asteroid irregular
* Nereid (3.1 × 1019 kg) satellite of Neptune irregular
15 Eunomia (3.3 × 1019 kg) asteroid irregular
3 Juno
Juno mpl anim
(3.0 × 1019 kg) asteroid irregular
16 Psyche (~1.7 × 1019 kg) asteroid irregular
31 Euphrosyne (~1.69 × 1019 kg) asteroid irregular
87 Sylvia (1.478 × 1019 kg) asteroid irregular
6 Hebe (~1.4 × 1019 kg) asteroid irregular
624 Hektor (~1.4 × 1019 kg) asteroid irregular
65 Cybele (~1.15 × 1019 kg) asteroid irregular
107 Camilla (1.09 × 1019 kg) asteroid irregular
* Hyperion (1.08 × 1019 kg) satellite of Saturn irregular
7 Iris (1.0 × 1019 kg) asteroid irregular
324 Bamberga (1.0 × 1019 kg) asteroid unknown
9 Metis (~9 × 1018 kg) asteroid irregular
* Phoebe (8.3 × 1018 kg) satellite of Saturn irregular
* Amalthea (7.43 × 1018 kg) satellite of Jupiter irregular
* Himalia (6.74 × 1018 kg) satellite of Jupiter irregular
22 Kalliope (6.3 × 1018 kg) asteroid irregular
45 Eugenia (5.8 × 1018 kg) asteroid irregular
* Sycorax (~5.4 × 1018 kg) satellite of Uranus irregular
20 Massalia (5.2 × 1018 kg) asteroid irregular
* Larissa (~4 × 1018 kg) satellite of Neptune irregular
8 Flora (~3.6 × 1018 kg) asteroid irregular
85 Io (~3.4 × 1018 kg) asteroid irregular
* Puck (~2.9 × 1018 kg) satellite of Uranus irregular
2060 Chiron (~2.7 × 1018 kg) centaur irregular
5 Astraea (~2.4 × 1018 kg) asteroid irregular
* Galatea (2.12 × 1018 kg) satellite of Neptune irregular
* Despina (~2.1 × 1018 kg) satellite of Neptune irregular
* Janus (1.912 × 1018 kg) satellite of Saturn irregular
* Portia (~1.7 × 1018 kg) satellite of Uranus irregular
141 Lumen (~1.6 × 1018 kg) asteroid
* Thebe (1.5 × 1018 kg) satellite of Jupiter irregular
140 Siwa (~1.5 × 1018 kg) asteroid irregular
159 Aemilia (~1.4 × 1018 kg) asteroid
21 Lutetia (~1.3 × 1018 kg) asteroid irregular
100 Hekate (~1.0 × 1018 kg) asteroid

Exagram range

Objects of mass between 1015 kg to 1018 kg (1 to 1000 Exagrams (Eg) ). These objects are not spherical.

Only unusually notable asteroids (e.g. visited by spacecraft, imaged by radar, mass precisely known, otherwise peculiar) are listed in this section
Name Image Mass in kg Type of object
* Elara (8.7 × 1017 kg) satellite of Jupiter
* Caliban (~7.4 × 1017 kg) satellite of Uranus
* Juliet (~5.6 × 1017 kg) satellite of Uranus
* Epimetheus (5.30 × 1017 kg) satellite of Saturn
* Belinda (~3.6 × 1017 kg) satellite of Uranus
* Thalassa (~3.5 × 1017 kg) satellite of Neptune
* Cressida (~3.4 × 1017 kg) satellite of Uranus
* Pasiphaë (3.0 × 1017 kg) satellite of Jupiter
* Rosalind (~2.5 × 1017 kg) satellite of Uranus
* Naiad (~1.9 × 1017 kg) satellite of Neptune
* Desdemona (~1.8 × 1017 kg) satellite of Uranus
* Prometheus (1.57 × 1017 kg) satellite of Saturn
* Pandora
Pandora PIA07632
(1.36 × 1017 kg) satellite of Saturn
* Carme (1.3 × 1017 kg) satellite of Jupiter
253 Mathilde (1.033 × 1017 kg) asteroid
* Metis (9.5467 × 1016 kg) satellite of Jupiter
* Bianca (~9.2 × 1016 kg) satellite of Uranus
* Sinope (7.6 × 1016 kg) satellite of Jupiter
* Hydra (~7 × 1016 kg) satellite of Pluto
* Nix (~7 × 1016 kg) satellite of Pluto
* Lysithea (6.3 × 1016 kg) satellite of Jupiter
* Linus (~6 × 1016 kg) satellite of 22 Kalliope
* Ophelia (~5.4 × 1016 kg) satellite of Uranus
* Cordelia (~4.4 × 1016 kg) satellite of Uranus
243 Ida 4.2 × 1016 kg asteroid
* Ananke (3.82 × 1016 kg) satellite of Jupiter
* Francisco (~2.1 × 1016 kg) satellite of Uranus
* Setebos (~2.1 × 1016 kg) satellite of Uranus
* Adrastea (1.8894 × 1016 kg) satellite of Jupiter
* Psamathe (~1.5 × 1017 kg) satellite of Neptune
1036 Ganymed (3.3 × 1016 kg) near-Earth asteroid
* Perdita (~1.3 × 1016 kg) satellite of Uranus
* Leda (1.09 × 1016 kg) satellite of Jupiter
* Phobos
Phobos
(1.08 × 1016 kg) satellite of Mars
* Mab (~1.0 × 1016 kg) satellite of Uranus
2685 Masursky (0.5–1.1 × 1016 kg) asteroid
433 Eros (7.2 × 1015 kg) asteroid
* Atlas (6.6 × 1015 kg) satellite of Saturn
* Stephano (~6.0 × 1015 kg) satellite of Uranus
* Pan (4.9 × 1015 kg) satellite of Saturn
* Romulus (~4 × 1015 kg) satellite of 87 Sylvia
* Cupid (~3.8 × 1015 kg) satellite of Uranus
951 Gaspra (2–3 × 1015 kg) asteroid
* Deimos (2.2 × 1015 kg) satellite of Mars
* S/2001 (107) 1 (~1.5 × 1015 kg) satellite of 107 Camilla
* Francisco (~1.4 × 1015 kg) satellite of Uranus
* Ferdinand (~1.3 × 1015 kg) satellite of Uranus
* Petit-Prince (~1.2 × 1015 kg) satellite of 45 Eugenia
* Margaret (~1.0 × 1015 kg) satellite of Uranus

Petagram range

Objects of mass between 1012 kg to 1015 kg (less than 1000 Petagrams (Pg) ). A few of the smallest of the irregular satellites of the gas planets are listed here, as well as the largest near-Earth asteroids due to unusual interest for their nearness. (See also: list of NEAs by distance from Sun.) Other NEOs that are not asteroids (e. g. inner-solar-system comets) are almost always less massive than 1 Pg.

Name Mass in kg Type of object
* Trinculo ~(7.5 × 1014 kg) Satellite of Uranus
* Themisto ~(6.89 × 1014 kg) Satellite of Jupiter
4179 Toutatis ~(5.0 × 1013 kg) NEA, Apollo, Mars-crosser
* Carpo ~(4.5 × 1014 kg) Satellite of Jupiter
* Remus (~2 × 1014 kg) satellite of 87 Sylvia
* Pallene ~(4.35 × 1013 kg) Satellite of Saturn
* Polydeuces ~(3 × 1013 kg) Satellite of Saturn
* Methone ~(1.85 × 1013 kg) Satellite of Saturn
* Euporie ~(1.5 × 1013 kg) Satellite of Jupiter
1862 Apollo ~(5.1 × 1012 kg) NEA, Venus-crosser, Mars-crosser
1620 Geographos ~(4.0 × 1012 kg)[3] NEA, Mars-crosser
1566 Icarus ~(2.9 × 1012 kg) NEA, Venus-crosser, Mars-crosser, Mercury-crosser

Teragram range

Objects of mass between 109 kg to 1012 kg (less than 1000 Teragrams (Tg) ). Currently all the bodies listed here are Near-Earth asteroids (See also: list of NEAs by distance from Sun.)

Name Mass in kg
2062 Aten ~(7.6 × 1011 kg)
4769 Castalia ~(5.0 × 1011 kg)
(144898) 2004 VD17 ~(3 × 1011 kg) [4]
99942 Apophis (2004 MN4) ~(5 × 1010 kg) [4]
1994 WR12 ~(2 × 109 kg) [4]

Gigagram range

Objects of mass between 106 kg to 109 kg (less than 1000 Gigagrams (Gg) ). Currently all the objects listed here are Near-Earth asteroids (See also: list of NEAs by distance from Sun.)

Name Mass in kg
2000 SG344 ~(7 × 107 kg) [4]
2006 QV89 ~(4 × 107 kg) [4]

Omissions

Many of these values were taken directly from the appropriate Wikipedia article. Some were taken from the Planetary Fact Sheets. The mass of 20000 Varuna was estimated based on values given at [1] for its diameter and density. Several large objects (such as (136472) 2005 FY9 and 28978 Ixion) are not listed because their masses are not yet given on their main articles. Eris has been given an estimate based on its size and composition.

References

  1. Astronomical bodies form into rounded shapes (oblate spheroids) when the gravity of their own mass is sufficient to overcome the structural stength of their intrinsic materials and the friction between those materials. This is called gravitational collapse.
  2. The mass of Eris is a very rough estimate based on a diameter of 2400 kilometers and a composition similar to that of the dwarf planet Pluto (density 2.03 g/cm³).
  3. http://72.14.203.104/search?q=cache:6ITCa-6NKw4J:www.spds.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/asteroidfact.html+1620+Geographos+mass&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=5
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Based on an assumed density of 2.6 g/cm³ as given at the NASA NEO impact risk page http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/risk/index.html

See also

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