The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.[nb 1] This name derives from its appearance as a dim "milky" glowing band arching across the night sky, in which the naked eye cannot distinguish individual stars. The term "Milky Way" is a translation of the Classical Latin via lactea, from the Hellenistic Greek γαλαξίας κύκλος (pr. galaxías kýklos, "milky circle"). The Milky Way appears like a band because it is a disk-shaped structure being viewed from inside. The fact that this faint band of light is made up of stars was proven in 1610 when Galileo Galilei used his telescope to resolve it into individual stars. In the 1920s, observations by astronomer Edwin Hubble showed that the Milky Way is just one of many galaxies.
The Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy 100,000–120,000 light-years in diameter containing 200–400 billion stars. It may contain at least as many planets. The Solar System is located within the disk, around two thirds of the way out from the Galactic Center, on the inner edge of a spiral-shaped concentration of gas and dust called the Orion–Cygnus Arm. The stars in the inner ≈10,000 light-years are organized in a bulge and one or more bars. The very center is marked by an intense radio source named Sagittarius A* which is likely to be a supermassive black hole. The Galaxy rotates differentially, faster towards the center and slower towards the outer edge. The rotational period is about 200 million years at the position of the Sun. The Galaxy as a whole is moving at a velocity of 552 to 630 km per second, depending on the relative frame of reference. It is estimated to be about 13.2 billion years old, nearly as old as the Universe. Surrounded by several smaller satellite galaxies, the Milky Way is part of the Local Group of galaxies, which forms a subcomponent of the Virgo Supercluster.
When observing the night sky, the term "Milky Way" is limited to the hazy band of white light some 30 degrees wide arcing across the sky (although all of the stars that can be seen with the naked eye are part of the Milky Way Galaxy). The light in this band originates from un-resolved stars and other material that lie within the Galactic plane. Dark regions within the band, such as the Great Rift and the Coalsack, correspond to areas where light from distant stars is blocked by interstellar dust.
The Milky Way has a relatively low surface brightness. Its visibility can be greatly reduced by background light such as light pollution or stray light from the moon. It is readily visible when the limiting magnitude is +5.1 or better, while showing a great deal of detail at +6.1. This makes the Milky Way difficult to see from any brightly-lit urban or suburban location but very prominent when viewed from a rural area when the moon is below the horizon.[nb 2]
The Milky Way passes through parts of roughly 30 constellations. The center of the Galaxy lies in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius; it is here that the Milky Way is brightest. From Sagittarius, the hazy band of white light appears to pass westward to the Galactic anticenter in Auriga. The band then continues westward the rest of the way around the sky back to Sagittarius. The fact that the band divides the night sky into two roughly equal hemispheres indicates that the Solar System lies close to the Galactic plane.
The Galactic plane is inclined by about 60 degrees to the ecliptic (the plane of the Earth's orbit). Relative to the celestial equator, it passes as far north as the constellation of Cassiopeia and as far south as the constellation of Crux, indicating the high inclination of Earth's equatorial plane and the plane of the ecliptic relative to the Galactic plane. The north Galactic pole is situated at right ascension 12h 49m, declination +27.4° (B1950) near beta Comae Berenices, and the south Galactic pole is near alpha Sculptoris. Because of this high inclination, depending on the time of night and the year, the arc of Milky Way can appear relatively low or relatively high in the sky. For observers from about 65 degrees north to 65 degrees south on the Earth's surface the Milky Way passes directly overhead twice a day.
Size and compositionEdit
The stellar disk of the Milky Way Galaxy is approximately Template:Convert in diameter, and is, on average, about Template:Convert thick. As a guide to the relative physical scale of the Milky Way, if it were reduced to Template:Convert in diameter, the Solar System, including the hypothesized Oort cloud, would be no more than Template:Convert in width. The nearest star, Proxima Centauri, would be Template:Convert distant.[nb 3] Alternatively visualized, if the Solar System out to Pluto were the size of a US quarter (Template:Convert) in diameter, the Milky way would be a disk approximately Template:Convert in diameter, having roughly one-third the area of the United States.
The Milky Way contains at least 100 billion stars and may have up to 400 billion stars. The exact figure depends on the number of very low-mass, or dwarf stars, which are hard to detect, especially at distances of more than Template:Convert from the Sun. As a comparison, the neighboring Andromeda Galaxy contains an estimated one trillion (1012) stars. Filling the space between the stars is a disk of gas and dust called the interstellar medium. This disk has at least a comparable extent in radius to the stars, while the thickness of the gas layer ranges from hundreds of light years for the colder gas to thousands of light years for warmer gas. Both gravitational microlensing and planetary transit observations indicate that there may be at least as many planets bound to stars as there are stars in the Milky Way, while microlensing measurements indicate that there are more rogue planets not bound to host stars than there are stars. Earth-sized planets may be more numerous than gas giants.
The disk of stars in the Milky Way does not have a sharp edge beyond which there are no stars. Rather, the concentration of stars drops smoothly with distance from the center of the Galaxy. Beyond a radius of roughly Template:Convert, the number of stars per cubic parsec drops much faster with radius, for reasons that are not understood. Surrounding the Galactic disk is a spherical Galactic Halo of stars and globular clusters that extends further outward, but is limited in size by the orbits of two Milky Way satellites, the Large and the Small Magellanic Clouds, whose closest approach to the Galactic center is about Template:Convert. At this distance or beyond, the orbits of most halo objects would be disrupted by the Magellanic Clouds. Hence, such objects would probably be ejected from the vicinity of the Milky Way. The integrated absolute visual magnitude of the Milky Way is estimated to be −20.9.
Estimates for the mass of the Milky Way vary, depending upon the method and data used. At the low end of the estimate range, the mass of the Milky Way is 5.8×1011 solar masses (M☉), somewhat smaller than the Andromeda Galaxy. Measurements using the Very Long Baseline Array in 2009 found velocities as large as 254 km/s for stars at the outer edge of the Milky Way, higher than the previously accepted value of 220 km/s. As the orbital velocity depends on the total mass inside the orbital radius, this suggests that the Milky Way is more massive, roughly equaling the mass of Andromeda Galaxy at 7×1011 M☉ within Template:Convert of its center. A 2010 measurement of the radial velocity of halo stars finds the mass enclosed within 80 kiloparsecs is 7×1011 M☉. Most of the mass of the Galaxy appears to be matter of unknown form which interacts with other matter through gravitational but not electromagnetic forces; this is dubbed dark matter. A dark matter halo is spread out relatively uniformly to a distance beyond one hundred kiloparsecs from the Galactic Center. Mathematical models of the Milky Way suggest that the total mass of the entire Galaxy lies in the range 1-1.5×1012 M☉.
Template:Multiple image The Galaxy consists of a bar-shaped core region surrounded by a disk of gas, dust and stars. The gas, dust and stars are organized in roughly logarithmic spiral arm structures (see Spiral arms below). The mass distribution within the Galaxy closely resembles the SBc Hubble classification, which is a spiral galaxy with relatively loosely wound arms. Astronomers first began to suspect that the Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy, rather than an ordinary spiral galaxy, in the 1990s. Their suspicions were confirmed by the Spitzer Space Telescope observations in 2005 that showed the Galaxy's central bar to be larger than previously suspected.
- Main article: Galactic Center
The Sun is Template:Convert from the Galactic Center. This value is estimated based upon geometric-based methods or using selected astronomical objects that serve as standard candles, with different techniques yielding different values within this approximate range. In the inner few kpc (≈10,000 light-years) is a dense concentration of mostly old stars in a roughly spheroidal shape called the bulge.
The Galactic Center is marked by an intense radio source named Sagittarius A*. The motion of material around the center indicates that Sagittarius A* harbors a massive, compact object. This concentration of mass is best explained as a supermassive black hole[nb 4] with an estimated mass of 4.1–4.5 million times the mass of the Sun. Observations indicate that there are supermassive black holes located near the center of most normal galaxies.
The nature of the Galaxy's bar is actively debated, with estimates for its half-length and orientation spanning from Template:Convert (short or a long bar) and 10–50 degrees relative to the line of sight from Earth to the Galactic Center. Certain authors advocate that the Galaxy features two distinct bars, one nestled within the other. The bar is delineated by red clump stars. However, RR Lyr variables do not trace a prominent Galactic bar. The bar may be surrounded by a ring called the "5-kpc ring" that contains a large fraction of the molecular hydrogen present in the Galaxy, as well as most of the Milky Way's star formation activity. Viewed from the Andromeda Galaxy, it would be the brightest feature of our own Galaxy.
Beyond the gravitational influence of the Galactic bars, astronomers generally organize the interstellar medium and stars in the disk of the Milky Way in four spiral arms. All of these arms contain more interstellar gas and dust than the Galactic average as well as a high concentration of star formation, traced by H II regions and molecular clouds. Counts of stars in near infrared light indicate that two arms contain approximately 30% more red giant stars than would be expected in the absence of a spiral arm, while two do not contain more red giant stars than regions outside of arms.
Maps of the Milky Way's spiral structure are notoriously uncertain and exhibit striking differences. Some 150 years after Alexander (1852) first suggested that the Milky Way was a spiral, there is currently no consensus on the nature of the Galaxy's spiral arms. Perfect logarithmic spiral patterns ineptly describe features near the Sun, namely since galaxies commonly exhibit arms that branch, merge, twist unexpectedly, and feature a degree of irregularity. The possible scenario of the Sun within a spur / Local arm emphasizes that point and indicates that such features are probably not unique, and exist elsewhere in the Galaxy.
As in most spiral galaxies, each spiral arm can be described as a logarithmic spiral. Estimates of the pitch angle of the arms range from ≈7° to ≈25°. Until recently, there were thought to be four major spiral arms which all start near the Galaxy's center. These are named as follows, with the positions of the arms shown in the image at right:
|cyan||3-kpc and Perseus Arm|
|purple||Norma and Outer arm (Along with extension discovered in 2004)|
|There are at least two smaller arms or spurs, including:|
|orange||Orion–Cygnus Arm (which contains the Sun and Solar System)|
Two spiral arms, the Scutum–Centaurus arm and the Carina–Sagittarius arm, have tangent points inside the Sun's orbit around the center of the Milky Way. If these arms contain an overdensity of stars compared to the average density of stars in the Galactic disk, it would be detectable by counting the stars near the tangent point. Two surveys of near-infrared light, which is sensitive primarily to red giant stars and not affected by dust extinction, detected the predicted overabundance in the Scutum–Centaurus arm but not in the Carina–Sagittarius arm. In 2008, Robert Benjamin of the University of Wisconsin–Whitewater used this observation to suggest that the Milky Way possesses only two major stellar arms: the Perseus arm and the Scutum–Centaurus arm. The rest of the arms contain excess gas but not excess stars.
Outside of the major spiral arms is the Monoceros Ring (or Outer Ring), proposed by astronomers Brian Yanny and Heidi Jo Newberg, a ring of gas and stars torn from other galaxies billions of years ago.
Another interesting aspect is the so-called "wind-up problem" of the spiral arms. If the inner parts of the arms rotate faster than the outer part, then the galaxy will wind up so much that the spiral structure will be thinned out. But this is not what is observed in spiral galaxies; instead, astronomers propose that the spiral pattern is a density wave emanating from the Galactic Center. This can be likened to a moving traffic jam on a highway—the cars are all moving, but there is always a region of slow-moving cars. This model also agrees with enhanced star formation in or near spiral arms; the compressional waves increase the density of molecular hydrogen and protostars form as a result.
The Galactic disk is surrounded by a spheroidal halo of old stars and globular clusters, of which 90% lie within Template:Convert of the Galactic Center, suggesting a stellar halo diameter of 200,000 light-years. However, a few globular clusters have been found farther, such as PAL 4 and AM1 at more than 200,000 light-years away from the Galactic Center. About 40% of the galaxy's clusters are on retrograde orbits, which means they move in the opposite direction from the Milky Way rotation. The globular clusters can follow rosette orbits about the Galaxy, in contrast to the elliptical orbit of a planet around a star.
While the disk contains gas and dust which obscure the view in some wavelengths, the spheroid component does not. Active star formation takes place in the disk (especially in the spiral arms, which represent areas of high density), but not in the halo. Open clusters also occur primarily in the disk.
Discoveries in the early 21st century have added dimension to the knowledge of the Milky Way's structure. With the discovery that the disk of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) extends much further than previously thought, the possibility of the disk of the Milky Way Galaxy extending further is apparent, and this is supported by evidence from the 2004 discovery of the Outer Arm extension of the Cygnus Arm. With the discovery of the Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy came the discovery of a ribbon of galactic debris as the polar orbit of the dwarf and its interaction with the Milky Way tears it apart. Similarly, with the discovery of the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy, it was found that a ring of galactic debris from its interaction with the Milky Way encircles the Galactic disk.
On January 9, 2006, Mario Jurić and others of Princeton University announced that the Sloan Digital Sky Survey of the northern sky found a huge and diffuse structure (spread out across an area around 5,000 times the size of a full moon) within the Milky Way that does not seem to fit within current models. The collection of stars rises close to perpendicular to the plane of the spiral arms of the Galaxy. The proposed likely interpretation is that a dwarf galaxy is merging with the Milky Way. This galaxy is tentatively named the Virgo Stellar Stream and is found in the direction of Virgo about Template:Convert away.
On September 24, 2012, a team of five astronomers working with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, along with data gathered by the XMM-Newton, and Suzaku (satellite) missions, announced that the halo had a mass nearly equivalent to the galaxy itself. They also discovered that it reaches much farther then previously thought, with new estimates showing that it extends as far as the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. If these findings were confirmed it could be the solution to the dark matter mystery surrounding the Milky Way.
On November 9, 2010, Doug Finkbeiner of the Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics announced that he had detected two gigantic spherical bubbles of high energy emission that are erupting to the north and the south of the Milky Way core, using data of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The diameter of each of the bubbles is about Template:Convert; they stretch up to Grus and to Virgo on the night-sky of the southern hemisphere. Their origin remains unclear, so far.
Sun's location and neighborhoodEdit
The Sun (and therefore the Earth and the Solar System) may be found close to the inner rim of the Galaxy's Orion Arm, in the Local Fluff inside the Local Bubble, and in the Gould Belt, at a distance of Template:Convert from the Galactic Center. The Sun is currently Template:Convert from the central plane of the Galactic disk. The distance between the local arm and the next arm out, the Perseus Arm, is about Template:Convert. The Sun, and thus the Solar System, is found in the Galactic habitable zone.
There are about 208 stars brighter than absolute magnitude 8.5 within a sphere with a radius of Template:Convert from the Sun, giving a density of 0.0147 such stars per cubic parsec, or Template:Val per cubic light-year (from List of nearest bright stars). On the other hand, there are 64 known stars (of any magnitude, not counting 4 brown dwarfs) within Template:Convert of the Sun, giving a density of 0.122 stars per cubic parsec, or 0.00352 per cubic light-year (from List of nearest stars), illustrating the fact that most stars are less bright than absolute magnitude 8.5.Template:Or
The Apex of the Sun's Way, or the solar apex, is the direction that the Sun travels through space in the Milky Way. The general direction of the Sun's Galactic motion is towards the star Vega near the constellation of Hercules, at an angle of roughly 60 sky degrees to the direction of the Galactic Center. The Sun's orbit around the Galaxy is expected to be roughly elliptical with the addition of perturbations due to the Galactic spiral arms and non-uniform mass distributions. In addition, the Sun oscillates up and down relative to the Galactic plane approximately 2.7 times per orbit. This is very similar to how a simple harmonic oscillator works with no drag force (damping) term. These oscillations were until recently thought to coincide with mass extinction periods on Earth. However, a reanalysis of the effects of the Sun's transit through the spiral structure based on CO data has failed to find these correlations.
It takes the Solar System about 225–250 million years to complete one orbit around the Galaxy (a Galactic year), so the Sun is thought to have completed 18–20 orbits during its lifetime and 1/1250 of a revolution since the origin of humans. The orbital speed of the Solar System about the center of the Galaxy is approximately 220 km/s or 0.073% of the speed of light. At this speed, it takes around 1,400 years for the Solar System to travel a distance of 1 light-year, or 8 days to travel 1 AU (astronomical unit).
The stars and gas in the Galaxy rotate about its center differentially, meaning that the rotation period varies with location. As is typical for spiral galaxies, the distribution of mass in the Milky Way Galaxy is such that the orbital speed of most stars in the Galaxy does not depend strongly on their distance from the center. Away from the central bulge or outer rim, the typical stellar orbital speed is between 210 and 240 km/s. Hence the orbital period of the typical star is directly proportional only to the length of the path traveled. This is unlike the situation within the Solar System, where two-body gravitational dynamics dominate and different orbits have significantly different velocities associated with them. The rotation curve (shown in the figure) describes this rotation.
If the Galaxy contained only the mass observed in stars, gas, and other baryonic (ordinary) matter, the rotation speed would decrease with distance from the center. However, the observed curve is relatively flat, indicating that there is additional mass that cannot be detected directly with electromagnetic radiation. This inconsistency is attributed to dark matter. Alternatively, a minority of astronomers propose that a modification of the law of gravity may explain the observed rotation curve. The constant rotation speed of most of the Galaxy means that objects further from the Galactic center take longer to orbit the center than objects closer in.
- Main article: Galaxy formation and evolution
The Milky Way began as one or several small overdensities in the mass distribution in the Universe shortly after the Big Bang. Some of these overdensities were the seeds of globular clusters in which the oldest remaining stars in what is now the Milky Way formed. These stars and clusters now comprise the stellar halo of the Galaxy. Within a few billion years of the birth of the first stars, the mass of the Milky Way was large enough so that it was spinning relatively quickly. Due to conservation of angular momentum, this led the gaseous interstellar medium to collapse from a roughly spheroidal shape to a disk. Therefore, later generations of stars formed in this spiral disk. Most younger stars, including the Sun, are observed to be in the disk.
Since the first stars began to form, the Milky Way has grown through both galaxy mergers (particularly early in the Galaxy's growth) and accretion of gas directly from the Galactic halo. The Milky Way is currently accreting material from its two nearest satellite galaxies, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, through the Magellanic Stream. Direct accretion of gas is observed in high velocity clouds like the Smith Cloud. However, properties of the Milky Way such as stellar mass, angular momentum, and metallicity in its outermost regions suggest it has suffered no mergers with large galaxies in the last 10 billion years. This lack of recent major mergers is unusual among similar spiral galaxies; its neighbour the Andromeda Galaxy appears to have a more typical history shaped by more recent mergers with relatively large galaxies.
According to recent studies, the Milky Way as well as Andromeda lie in what in the galaxy color-magnitude diagram is known as the green valley, a region populated by galaxies in transition from the blue cloud (galaxies actively forming new stars) to the red sequence (galaxies that lack star formation). Star formation activity in green valley galaxies is slowing as they run out of star-forming gas in the interstellar medium. In simulated galaxies with similar properties, star formation will typically have been extinguished within about five billion years from now, even accounting for the expected, short-term increase in the rate of star formation due to the collision between both our galaxy and M31. In fact, measurements of other galaxies similar to our own suggest it's among the reddest and brightest spiral galaxies that are still forming new stars and it's just slightly bluer than the bluest red sequence galaxies.
The ages of individual stars in the Milky Way can be estimated by measuring the abundance of long-lived radioactive elements such as thorium-232 and uranium-238, then comparing the results to estimates of their original abundance, a technique called nucleocosmochronology. These yield values of about 14.0 ± 2.4 billion years (Ga) for CS 31082-001 and 13.8 ± 4 billion years for BD+17° 3248. Once a white dwarf star is formed, it begins to undergo radiative cooling and the surface temperature steadily drops. By measuring the temperatures of the coolest of these white dwarfs and comparing them to their expected initial temperature, an age estimate can be made. With this technique, the age of the globular cluster M4 was estimated as 12.7 ± 0.7 billion years. Globular clusters are among the oldest objects in the Milky Way Galaxy, which thus set a lower limit on the Galaxy age. Age estimates of the oldest of these clusters gives a best fit estimate of 12.6 billion years, and a 95% confidence upper limit of 16 billion years.
In 2007, a star in the Galactic halo, HE 1523-0901, was estimated to be about 13.2 billion years old, ≈0.5 billion years less than the age of the universe. As the oldest known object in the Milky Way at that time, this measurement placed a lower limit on the age of the Milky Way. This estimate was determined using the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph of the Very Large Telescope to measure the relative strengths of spectral lines caused by the presence of Thorium and other elements created by the R-process. The line strengths yield abundances of different elemental isotopes, from which an estimate of the age of the star can be derived using nucleocosmochronology.
The age of stars in the Galactic thin disk has also been estimated using nucleocosmochronology. Measurements of thin disk stars yield an estimate that the thin disk formed between 8.8 ± 1.7 billion years ago. These measurements suggest there was a hiatus of almost 5 billion years between the formation of the Galactic halo and the thin disk.
- Main article: Local Group
The Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy are a binary system of giant spiral galaxies belonging to a group of 50 closely bound galaxies known as the Local Group, itself being part of the Virgo Supercluster.
Two smaller galaxies and a number of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group orbit the Milky Way. The largest of these is the Large Magellanic Cloud with a diameter of 20,000 light-years. It has a close companion, the Small Magellanic Cloud. The Magellanic Stream is a peculiar streamer of neutral hydrogen gas connecting these two small galaxies. The stream is thought to have been dragged from the Magellanic Clouds in tidal interactions with the Milky Way. Some of the dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way are Canis Major Dwarf (the closest), Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy, Ursa Minor Dwarf, Sculptor Dwarf, Sextans Dwarf, Fornax Dwarf, and Leo I Dwarf. The smallest Milky Way dwarf galaxies are only 500 light-years in diameter. These include Carina Dwarf, Draco Dwarf, and Leo II Dwarf. There may still be undetected dwarf galaxies, which are dynamically bound to the Milky Way, as well as some that have already been absorbed by the Milky Way, such as Omega Centauri. Observations through the Zone of Avoidance are frequently detecting new distant and nearby galaxies. Some galaxies consisting mostly of gas and dust may also have evaded detection so far.
In January 2006, researchers reported that the heretofore unexplained warp in the disk of the Milky Way has now been mapped and found to be a ripple or vibration set up by the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds as they circle the Galaxy, causing vibrations at certain frequencies when they pass through its edges. Previously, these two galaxies, at around 2% of the mass of the Milky Way, were considered too small to influence the Milky Way. However, by taking into account dark matter, the movement of these two galaxies creates a wake that influences the larger Milky Way. Taking dark matter into account results in an approximately twentyfold increase in mass for the galaxy. This calculation is according to a computer model made by Martin Weinberg of the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In this model, the dark matter is spreading out from the Galactic disk with the known gas layer. As a result, the model predicts that the gravitational effect of the Magellanic Clouds is amplified as they pass through the Galaxy.
Current measurements suggest the Andromeda Galaxy is approaching us at 100 to 140 kilometers per second. The Milky Way may collide with it in 3 to 4 billion years, depending on the importance of unknown lateral components to the galaxies' relative motion. If they collide, individual stars within the galaxies would not collide, but instead the two galaxies will merge to form a single elliptical galaxy over the course of about a billion years.
In the general sense, the absolute velocity of any object through space is not a meaningful question according to Einstein's special theory of relativity, which declares that there is no "preferred" inertial frame of reference in space with which to compare the object's motion. (Motion must always be specified with respect to another object.) This must be kept in mind when discussing the Galaxy's motion.
Astronomers believe the Milky Way is moving at approximately 630 km per second relative to the average velocity of galaxies taken over a large enough volume so that the expansion of the Universe dominates over local, random motions: the local co-moving frame of reference that moves with the Hubble flow.Template:Elucidate The Milky Way is moving in the general direction of the Great Attractor and other galaxy clusters, including the Shapley supercluster, behind it. The Local Group (a cluster of gravitationally bound galaxies containing, among others, the Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy) is part of a supercluster called the Local Supercluster, centered near the Virgo Cluster: although they are moving away from each other at 967 km/s as part of the Hubble flow, this velocity is less than would be expected given the 16.8 million pc distance due to the gravitational attraction between the Local Group and the Virgo Cluster.
<span id="cmb"/>Another reference frame is provided by the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The Milky Way is moving at 552 ± 6 km/s with respect to the photons of the CMB, toward 10.5 right ascension, −24° declination (J2000 epoch, near the center of Hydra). This motion is observed by satellites such as the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) as a dipole contribution to the CMB, as photons in equilibrium in the CMB frame get blue-shifted in the direction of the motion and red-shifted in the opposite direction.
Etymology and mythologyEdit
- Main article: List of names for the Milky Way
In western culture the name "Milky Way" is derived from its appearance as a dim un-resolved "milky" glowing band arching across the night sky. The term is a translation of the Classical Latin via lactea, in turn derived from the Hellenistic Greek γαλαξίας, short for γαλαξίας κύκλος (pr. galaktikos kyklos, "milky circle"). The Ancient Greek γαλαξίας (galaxias), from root γαλακτ-, γάλα (milk) + -ίας (forming adjectives), is also the root of "galaxy", the name for our, and later all such, collections of stars. The Milky Way "milk circle" was just one of 11 circles the Greeks identified in the sky, others being the zodiac, the meridian, the horizon, the equator, the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, Arctic and Antarctic circles, and two colure circles passing through both poles.
There are many creation myths around the world which explain the origin of the Milky Way and give it its name. In Greek myth, the Milky Way was caused by milk spilt by Hera when suckling Heracles. It is also described as the road to mount Olympus, and the path of ruin made by the chariot of the Sun god Helios.
In Sanskrit and several other Indo-Aryan languages, the Milky Way is called Akash Ganga (आकाशगंगा, Ganges of the heavens); it is held to be sacred in the Hindu Puranas (scriptures), and the Ganges and the Milky Way are considered to be terrestrial and celestial analogs. Kshira (क्षीर, milk) is an alternative name for the Milky Way in Hindu texts in Sanskrit.
- See also: Galaxy#Observation history
As Aristotle (384–322 BC) informs us in Meteorologica (DK 59 A80), the Greek philosophers Anaxagoras (ca. 500–428 BC) and Democritus (450–370 BC) proposed the Milky Way might consist of distant stars. However, Aristotle himself believed the Milky Way to be caused by "the ignition of the fiery exhalation of some stars which were large, numerous and close together" and that the "ignition takes place in the upper part of the atmosphere, in the region of the world which is continuous with the heavenly motions." The Neoplatonist philosopher Olympiodorus the Younger (c. 495–570 A.D.) criticized this view, arguing that if the Milky Way were sublunary it should appear different at different times and places on the Earth, and that it should have parallax, which it does not. In his view, the Milky Way was celestial. This idea would be influential later in the Islamic world.
According to Mohaini Mohamed, the Arabian astronomer, Alhazen (965–1037 AD), refuted Aristotle's view by making the first attempt at observing and measuring the Milky Way's parallax.Template:Verify source He determined that the Milky Way has no parallax and concluded that it must be remote from the Earth, not part of Earth's atmosphere.
The Persian astronomer Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī (973–1048) proposed that the Milky Way is "a collection of countless fragments of the nature of nebulous stars". The Andalusian astronomer Avempace (d. 1138) proposed the Milky Way to be made up of many stars but appears to be a continuous image due to the effect of refraction in the Earth's atmosphere, citing his observation of a conjunction of Jupiter and Mars in 1106 or 1107 as evidence. Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya (1292–1350) proposed the Milky Way Galaxy to be "a myriad of tiny stars packed together in the sphere of the fixed stars" and that these stars are larger than planets.
According to Jamil Ragep, the Persian astronomer Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī (1201–1274) in his Tadhkira writes: "The Milky Way, i.e. the Galaxy, is made up of a very large number of small, tightly-clustered stars, which, on account of their concentration and smallness, seem to be cloudy patches. Because of this, it was likened to milk in color."
Actual proof of the Milky Way consisting of many stars came in 1610 when Galileo Galilei used a telescope to study the Milky Way and discovered that it was composed of a huge number of faint stars. In a treatise in 1755, Immanuel Kant, drawing on earlier work by Thomas Wright, speculated (correctly) that the Milky Way might be a rotating body of a huge number of stars, held together by gravitational forces akin to the Solar System but on much larger scales. The resulting disk of stars would be seen as a band on the sky from our perspective inside the disk. Kant also conjectured that some of the nebulae visible in the night sky might be separate "galaxies" themselves, similar to our own. Kant referred to both our Galaxy and the "extragalactic nebulae" as "island universes", a term still current up to the 1930s.
The first attempt to describe the shape of the Milky Way and the position of the Sun within it was carried out by William Herschel in 1785 by carefully counting the number of stars in different regions of the visible sky. He produced a diagram of the shape of the Galaxy with the Solar System close to the center.
In 1845, Lord Rosse constructed a new telescope and was able to distinguish between elliptical and spiral-shaped nebulae. He also managed to make out individual point sources in some of these nebulae, lending credence to Kant's earlier conjecture.
In 1917, Heber Curtis had observed the nova S Andromedae within the "Great Andromeda Nebula" (Messier object M31). Searching the photographic record, he found 11 more novae. Curtis noticed that these novae were, on average, 10 magnitudes fainter than those that occurred within our Galaxy. As a result he was able to come up with a distance estimate of 150,000 parsecs. He became a proponent of the "island universes" hypothesis, which held that the spiral nebulae were actually independent galaxies. In 1920 the Great Debate took place between Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis, concerning the nature of the Milky Way, spiral nebulae, and the dimensions of the universe. To support his claim that the Great Andromeda Nebula was an external galaxy, Curtis noted the appearance of dark lanes resembling the dust clouds in the Milky Way, as well as the significant Doppler shift.
The matter was conclusively settled by Edwin Hubble in the early 1920s using the Mount Wilson observatory 100 inch (2.5 m) Hooker telescope. With the light-gathering power of this new telescope he was able to produce astronomical photographs that resolved the outer parts of some spiral nebulae as collections of individual stars. He was also able to identify some Cepheid variables that he could use as a benchmark to estimate the distance to the nebulae: proving they were far too distant to be part of the Milky Way. In 1936, Hubble produced a classification system for galaxies that is used to this day, the Hubble sequence.
- Baade's Window
- Galactic coordinate system
- MilkyWay@Home, a distributed computing project that attempts to generate highly accurate three-dimensional dynamic models of stellar streams in the immediate vicinity of our Milky Way Galaxy.
- Oort constants
- ^ Some sources hold that, strictly speaking, the term Milky Wayshould refer exclusively to the band of light that the galaxy forms in the night sky, while the galaxy should receive the full nameMilky Way Galaxy, or alternatively the Galaxy. However, it is unclear how widespread this convention is, and the term Milky Way is routinely used in either context. See:
- Freedman, Roger A.; Kaufmann, William J. (2007). Universe. WH Freeman & Co.. p. 605. ISBN 0-7167-8584-6.
- "Galaxies — Milky Way Galaxy". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. 1998. pp. 618.
- Pasachoff, Jay M. (1994). Astronomy: From the Earth to the Universe. Harcourt School. p. 500. ISBN 0-03-001667-3.
- ^ See also Bortle Dark-Sky Scale
- ^ The scale is 1 mm equals 1 ly.
- ^ For a photo see: "Sagittarius A*: Milky Way monster stars in cosmic reality show". Chandra X-ray Observatory. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. January 6, 2003. Retrieved 2012-05-20.
- ^ a b Gerhard, O. (2002). "Mass distribution in our Galaxy".Space Science Reviews 100 (1/4): 129–138. arXiv:astro-ph/0203110. Bibcode 2002astro.ph..3110G.doi:10.1023/A:1015818111633.
- ^ a b c Christian, Eric; Safi-Harb, Samar. "How large is the Milky Way?". NASA: Ask an Astrophysicist. Retrieved 2007-11-28.
- ^ "NASA – Galaxy". NASA and World Book. Nasa.gov. November 29, 2007. Retrieved 2012-12-6.
- ^ Staff (December 16, 2008). "How Many Stars are in the Milky Way?". Universe Today. Retrieved 2010-08-10.
- ^ a b c Frebel, A. et al. (2007). "Discovery of HE 1523-0901, a strongly r-process-enhanced metal-poor star with detected uranium". The Astrophysical Journal 660 (2): L117. arXiv:astro-ph/0703414. Bibcode 2007ApJ...660L.117F.doi:10.1086/518122.
- ^ a b McMillan, P. J. (July 2011). "Mass models of the Milky Way".Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 414 (3): 2446–2457. Bibcode 2011MNRAS.414.2446M.doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18564.x.
- ^ a b c d Gillessen, S. et al. (2009). "Monitoring stellar orbits around the massive black hole in the Galactic Center".Astrophysical Journal 692 (2): 1075–1109. arXiv:0810.4674.Bibcode 2009ApJ...692.1075G. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/692/2/1075.
- ^ a b Gunter Faure, Teresa M. Mensing, Introduction to Planetary Science: The Geological Perspective, page 45
- ^ a b Bissantz, N.; Englmaier, P.; Gerhard, O. (2003). "Gas dynamics in the Milky Way: second pattern speed and large-scale morphology". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 340 (3): 949. arXiv:astro-ph/0212516. Bibcode2003MNRAS.340..949B. doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.2003.06358.x.
- ^ a b c Kogut, A. et al. (1993). "Dipole anisotropy in the COBE differential microwave radiometers first-year sky maps". The Astrophysical Journal 419: 1. arXiv:astro-ph/9312056.Bibcode 1993ApJ...419....1K. doi:10.1086/173453.
- ^ "Milky Way". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2012-10-31.
- ^ "Milky Way Galaxy". Merriam-Webster Incorportated. Retrieved 2012-10-31.
- ^ "Milky Way Galaxy". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. Retrieved 2012-10-31.
- ^ a b Harper, Douglas. "galaxy". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-05-20.
- ^ Jankowski, Connie (2010). Pioneers of Light and Sound. Compass Point Books. p. 6. ISBN 0-7565-4306-1.
- ^ Schiller, Jon (2010). Big Bang & Black Holes. CreateSpace. p. 163. ISBN 1-4528-6552-3.
- ^ a b c Cassan, A. et al. (January 11, 2012). "One or more bound planets per Milky Way star from microlensing observations".Nature 481 (7380): 167–169. Bibcode 2012Natur.481..167C.doi:10.1038/nature10684. PMID 22237108.
- ^ Pasachoff, Jay M. (1994). Astronomy: From the Earth to the Universe. Harcourt School. p. 500. ISBN 0-03-001667-3.
- ^ Steinicke, Wolfgang; Jakiel, Richard (2007). Galaxies and how to observe them. Astronomers' observing guides. Springer. p. 94. ISBN 1-85233-752-4.
- ^ http://www.nasa.gov/audience/foreducators/5-8/features/F_How_Big_is_Our_Universe.html
- ^ Villard, Ray (January 11, 2012). "The Milky Way Contains at Least 100 Billion Planets According to Survey". HubbleSite.org. Retrieved 2012-01-11.
- ^ Frommert, H.; Kronberg, C. (August 25, 2005). "The Milky Way Galaxy". SEDS. Retrieved 2007-05-09.
- ^ Wethington, Nicholos. "How Many Stars are in the Milky Way?". Retrieved 2010-04-09.
- ^ Young, Kelly (June 6, 2006). "Andromeda Galaxy hosts a trillion stars". NewScientist. Retrieved 2006-06-08.
- ^ Levine, E. S.; Blitz, L.; Heiles, C. (2006). "The spiral structure of the outer Milky Way in hydrogen". Science 312 (5781): 1773–1777. arXiv:astro-ph/0605728. Bibcode2006Sci...312.1773L. doi:10.1126/science.1128455.PMID 16741076.
- ^ Dickey, J. M.; Lockman, F. J. (1990). "H I in the Galaxy". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 28: 215. Bibcode1990ARA&A..28..215D.doi:10.1146/annurev.aa.28.090190.001243.
- ^ Savage, B. D.; Wakker, B. P. (2009). "The extension of the transition temperature plasma into the lower galactic halo". The Astrophysical Journal 702 (2): 1472. Bibcode2009ApJ...702.1472S. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/702/2/1472.
- ^ Borenstein, Seth (February 19, 2011). "Cosmic census finds crowd of planets in our galaxy". The Washington Post.Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2011-02-21.
- ^ Sumi, T. et al. (2011). "Unbound or distant planetary mass population detected by gravitational microlensing". Nature 473(7347): 349–352. arXiv:1105.3544. Bibcode2011Natur.473..349S. doi:10.1038/nature10092.PMID 21593867.
- ^ "Free-Floating Planets May be More Common Than Stars". Pasadena, CA: NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. February 18, 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-05-25. "The team estimates there are about twice as many of them as stars."
- ^ Sale, S. E. et al. (February 2010). "The structure of the outer Galactic disc as revealed by IPHAS early a stars". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 402 (2): 713–723.Bibcode 2010MNRAS.402..713S. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15746.x.
- ^ Connors, Tim W.; Kawata, Daisuke; Gibson, Brad K. (2006). "N-body simulations of the Magellanic stream". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 371 (1): 108–120. arXiv:astro-ph/0508390. Bibcode 2006MNRAS.371..108C.doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2006.10659.x.
- ^ Coffey, Jerry. "Absolute Magnitude". Retrieved 2010-04-0.
- ^ Karachentsev, I. D.; Kashibadze, O. G. (2006). "Masses of the local group and of the M81 group estimated from distortions in the local velocity field". Astrophysics 49 (1): 3–18. Bibcode2006Ap.....49....3K. doi:10.1007/s10511-006-0002-6.
- ^ Vayntrub, Alina (2000). "Mass of the Milky Way". The Physics Factbook. Retrieved 2007-05-09.
- ^ Battaglia, G. et al. (2005). "The radial velocity dispersion profile of the Galactic halo: Constraining the density profile of the dark halo of the Milky Way". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: 433–442. arXiv:astro-ph/0506102.Bibcode 2005MNRAS.364..433B. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2005.09367.x.
- ^ Finley, Dave; Aguilar, David (January 5, 2009). "Milky Way a Swifter Spinner, More Massive, New Measurements Show". National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Retrieved 2009-01-20.
- ^ Reid, M. J. et al. (2009). "Trigonometric parallaxes of massive star-forming regions. VI. Galactic structure, fundamental parameters, and noncircular motions". The Astrophysical Journal 700: 137–148. arXiv:0902.3913. Bibcode2009ApJ...700..137R. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/700/1/137.
- ^ Gnedin, O. Y. et al. (2010). "The mass profile of the Galaxy to 80 kpc". The Astrophysical Journal 720: L108.arXiv:1005.2619. Bibcode 2010ApJ...720L.108G.doi:10.1088/2041-8205/720/1/L108.
- ^ a b c Benjamin, R. A. (2008). "The Spiral Structure of the Galaxy: Something Old, Something New...". In Beuther, H.; Linz, H.; Henning, T. (ed.). Massive Star Formation: Observations Confront Theory. 387. Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series. pp. 375. Bibcode 2008ASPC..387..375B.
See also Bryner, Jeanna (June 3, 2008). "New Images: Milky Way Loses Two Arms". Space.com. Retrieved 2008-06-04.
- ^ Chen, W.; Gehrels, N.; Diehl, R.; Hartmann, D. (1996). "On the spiral arm interpretation of COMPTEL ^26^Al map features".Space Science Reviews 120: 315–316. Bibcode1996A&AS..120C.315C.
- ^ McKee, Maggie (August 16, 2005). "Bar at Milky Way's heart revealed". New Scientist. Retrieved 2009-06-17.
- ^ a b c d Ghez, A. M. et al. (December 2008). "Measuring distance and properties of the Milky Way's central supermassive black hole with stellar orbits". The Astrophysical Journal 689 (2): 1044–1062. Bibcode 2008ApJ...689.1044G.doi:10.1086/592738.
- ^ Reid, M. J. et al. (November 2009). "A trigonometric parallax of Sgr B2". The Astrophysical Journal 705 (2): 1548–1553.Bibcode 2009ApJ...705.1548R. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/705/2/1548.
- ^ a b Vanhollebeke, E.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Girardi, L. (April 2009). "Stellar populations in the Galactic bulge. Modelling the Galactic bulge with TRILEGAL". Astronomy and Astrophysics498: 95–107. Bibcode 2009A&A...498...95V.doi:10.1051/0004-6361/20078472.
- ^ a b c d Majaess, D. (March 2010). "Concerning the Distance to the Center of the Milky Way and Its Structure". Acta Astronomica60 (1): 55. arXiv:1002.2743. Bibcode 2010AcA....60...55M.
- ^ Grant, J.; Lin, B. (2000). "The Stars of the Milky Way". Fairfax Public Access Corporation. Retrieved 2007-05-09.
- ^ Jones, Mark H.; Lambourne, Robert J.; Adams, David John (2004). An Introduction to Galaxies and Cosmology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 50–51. ISBN 0-521-54623-0.
- ^ Blandford, R. D. (1999). "Origin and Evolution of Massive Black Holes in Galactic Nuclei". Galaxy Dynamics, proceedings of a conference held at Rutgers University, 8–12 August 1998, ASP Conference Series vol. 182. Bibcode1999ASPC..182...87B.
- ^ Frolov, Valeri P.; Zelnikov, Andrei (2011). Introduction to Black Hole Physics. Oxford University Press. pp. 11, 36.ISBN 0199692297.
- ^ Cabrera-Lavers, A. et al. (December 2008). "The long Galactic bar as seen by UKIDSS Galactic plane survey". Astronomy and Astrophysics 491 (3): 781–787. Bibcode2008A&A...491..781C. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200810720.
- ^ Nishiyama, S. et al. (2005). "A distinct structure inside the Galactic bar". The Astrophysical Journal 621 (2): L105.arXiv:astro-ph/0502058. Bibcode 2005ApJ...621L.105N.doi:10.1086/429291.
- ^ Alcock, C. et al. (1998). "The RR Lyrae population of the Galactic Bulge from the MACHO database: mean colors and magnitudes". The Astrophysical Journal 492 (2): 190.arXiv:astro-ph/0502058. Bibcode 2005ApJ...621L.105N.doi:10.1086/305017.
- ^ Kunder, A.; Chaboyer, B. (2008). "Metallicity analysis of Macho Galactic Bulge RR0 Lyrae stars from their light curves". The Astronomical Journal 136 (6): 2441. Bibcode2008AJ....136.2441K. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/136/6/2441.
- ^ Staff (September 12, 2005). "Introduction: Galactic Ring Survey". Boston University. Retrieved 2007-05-10.
- ^ a b Churchwell, E. et al. (2009). "The Spitzer/GLIMPSE surveys: a new view of the Milky Way". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 121 (877): 213. Bibcode2009PASP..121..213C. doi:10.1086/597811.
- ^ Taylor, J. H.; Cordes, J. M. (1993). "Pulsar distances and the galactic distribution of free electrons". The Astrophysical Journal411: 674. doi:10.1086/172870.
- ^ a b c d Russeil, D. (2003). "Star-forming complexes and the spiral structure of our Galaxy". Astronomy and Astrophysics 397: 133–146. Bibcode 2003A&A...397..133R. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20021504.
- ^ Dame, T. M.; Hartmann, D.; Thaddeus, P. (2001). "The Milky Way in Molecular Clouds: A New Complete CO Survey". The Astrophysical Journal 547 (2): 792. doi:10.1086/318388.
- ^ a b c Drimmel, R. (2000). "Evidence for a two-armed spiral in the Milky Way". Astronomy & Astrophysics 358: L13–L16.arXiv:astro-ph/0005241. Bibcode 2000A&A...358L..13D.
- ^ a b Benjamin, R. A. et al. (2005). "First GLIMPSE results on the stellar structure of the Galaxy". The Astrophysical Journal 630(2): L149–L152. arXiv:astro-ph/0508325. Bibcode2005ApJ...630L.149B. doi:10.1086/491785.
- ^ Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Sofue, Yoshiaki (2003). "Three-Dimensional Distribution of the ISM in the Milky Way Galaxy: I. The H I Disk". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan55: 191. arXiv:astro-ph/0304338. Bibcode2003PASJ...55..191N.
- ^ Vallée, J. P. (2008). "New velocimetry and revised cartography of the spiral arms in the Milky Way—a consistent symbiosis".The Astronomical Journal 135 (4): 1301. Bibcode2008AJ....135.1301V. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/135/4/1301.
- ^ Hou, L. G.; Han, J. L.; Shi, W. B. (2009). "The spiral structure of our Milky Way Galaxy". Astronomy and Astrophysics 499 (2): 473. Bibcode 2009A&A...499..473H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200809692.
- ^ a b c d Majaess, D. J.; Turner, D. J.; Lane (2009). "Searching Beyond the Obscuring Dust Between the Cygnus-Aquila Rifts for Cepheid Tracers of the Galaxy's Spiral Arms". The Journal of the American Association of Variable Star Observers 37: 179.arXiv:0909.0897. Bibcode 2009JAVSO..37..179M.
- ^ a b Lépine, J. R. D. et al. (2011). "The spiral structure of the Galaxy revealed by CS sources and evidence for the 4:1 resonance". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society414 (2): 1607. arXiv:1010.1790. Bibcode2011MNRAS.414.1607L. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18492.x.
- ^ Alexander, S. (1852). "On the origin of the forms and the present condition of some of the clusters of stars, and several of the nebulae". The Astronomical Journal 2: 97. Bibcode1852AJ......2...97A. doi:10.1086/100231.
- ^ Levine, E. S.; Blitz, L.; Heiles, C. (2006). "The spiral structure of the outer Milky Way in hydrogen". Science 312 (5781): 1773–1777. arXiv:astro-ph/0605728. Bibcode2006Sci...312.1773L. doi:10.1126/science.1128455.PMID 16741076.
- ^ a b McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Dickey, J. M.; Gaensler, B. M.; Green, A. J. (2004). "A Distant Extended Spiral Arm in the Fourth Quadrant of the Milky Way". The Astrophysical Journal 607 (2): L127. doi:10.1086/422031.
- ^ Harris, William E. (February 2003). "Catalog of Parameters for Milky Way Globular Clusters: The Database" (text). SEDS. Retrieved 2007-05-10.
- ^ Dauphole, B. et al. (September 1996). "The kinematics of globular clusters, apocentric distances and a halo metallicity gradient". Astronomy and Astrophysics 313: 119–128. Bibcode1996A&A...313..119D.
- ^ Gnedin, O. Y.; Lee, H. M.; Ostriker, J. P. (1999). "Effects of Tidal Shocks on the Evolution of Globular Clusters". The Astrophysical Journal 522 (2): 935–949. arXiv:astro-ph/9806245. Bibcode 1999ApJ...522..935G.doi:10.1086/307659.
- ^ Ibata, R. et al. (2005). "On the accretion origin of a vast extended stellar disk around the Andromeda Galaxy". The Astrophysical Journal 634 (1): 287–313. arXiv:astro-ph/0504164. Bibcode 2005ApJ...634..287I.doi:10.1086/491727.
- ^ "Outer Disk Ring?". SolStation. Retrieved 2007-05-10.
- ^ Jurić, M. et al. (February 2008). "The Milky Way Tomography with SDSS. I. Stellar Number Density Distribution". The Astrophysical Journal 673 (2): 864–914. Bibcode2008ApJ...673..864J. doi:10.1086/523619.
- ^ Submission of paper 'A huge reservoir of ionized gas around the Milky Way: Accounting for the Missing Mass?' written by A. Gupta, S. Mathur, Y. Krongold, F. Nicastro, M. Galeazzi
- ^ Smithsonian's Astrophysical Observatory announcement of discoveries of the team, with list of observations, dates and public release information.
- ^ NASA news article by J.D. Harrington, Janet Anderson, and Peter Edmonds.
- ^ Overbye, Dennis (November 9, 2010). "Bubbles of Energy Are Found in Galaxy". The New York Times.
- ^ "Rätselhafte Blasen im All". Süddeutsche Zeitung. Retrieved 2010-11-10.
- ^ Reid, M. J. (1993). "The distance to the center of the Galaxy".Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 31: 345–372.Bibcode 1993ARA&A..31..345R.doi:10.1146/annurev.aa.31.090193.002021.
- ^ Majaess, D. J.; Turner, D. G.; Lane, D. J. (2009). "Characteristics of the Galaxy according to Cepheids". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 398 (1): 263–270.Bibcode 2009MNRAS.398..263M. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15096.x.
- ^ English, Jayanne (January 14, 2000). "Exposing the Stuff Between the Stars". Hubble News Desk. Retrieved 2007-05-10.
- ^ Gillman, M.; Erenler, H. (2008). "The galactic cycle of extinction". International Journal of Astrobiology 7. Bibcode2008IJAsB...7...17G. doi:10.1017/S1473550408004047.
- ^ Overholt, A. C.; Melott, A. L.; Pohl, M. (2009). "Testing the link between terrestrial climate change and galactic spiral arm transit". The Astrophysical Journal 705 (2): L101–L103. Bibcode2009ApJ...705L.101O. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/705/2/L101.
- ^ Leong, Stacy (2002). "Period of the Sun's Orbit around the Galaxy (Cosmic Year)". The Physics Factbook. Retrieved 2007-05-10.
- ^ Garlick, Mark Antony (2002). The Story of the Solar System.Cambridge University. p. 46. ISBN 0-521-80336-5.
- ^ Peter Schneider (2006). Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology. Springer. p. 4, Figure 1.4. ISBN 3-540-33174-3.
- ^ a b Koupelis, Theo; Kuhn, Karl F. (2007). In Quest of the Universe. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 492; Figure 16-13.ISBN 0-7637-4387-9.
- ^ Jones, Mark H.; Lambourne, Robert J.; Adams, David John (2004). An Introduction to Galaxies and Cosmology. Cambridge University Press. p. 21; Figure 1.13. ISBN 0-521-54623-0.
- ^ Imamura, Jim (August 10, 2006). "Mass of the Milky Way Galaxy". University of Oregon. Archived from the original on 2007-03-01. Retrieved 2007-05-10.
- ^ Peter Schneider (2006). Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology. Springer. p. 413. ISBN 3-540-33174-3.
- ^ Wethington, Nicholas (May 27, 2009). "Formation of the Milky Way". Universe Today.
- ^ a b Buser, R. (2000). "The Formation and Early Evolution of the Milky Way Galaxy". Science 287 (5450): 69–74. Bibcode2000Sci...287...69B. doi:10.1126/science.287.5450.69.PMID 10615051.
- ^ Wakker, B. P.; Van Woerden, H. (1997). "High-Velocity Clouds". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 35: 217. Bibcode 1997ARA&A..35..217W.doi:10.1146/annurev.astro.35.1.217.
- ^ Lockman, F. J. et al. (2008). "The Smith Cloud: A High-Velocity Cloud Colliding with the Milky Way". The Astrophysical Journal679: L21–L24. arXiv:0804.4155. Bibcode2008ApJ...679L..21L. doi:10.1086/588838.
- ^ Yin, J.; Hou, J.L; Prantzos, N.; Boissier, S.; Chang, R. X.; Shen, S. Y.; Zhang, B. (2009). "Milky Way versus Andromeda: a tale of two disks". Astronomy and Astrophysics 505 (2): 497–508.arXiv:0906.4821. Bibcode 2009A&A...505..497Y.doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200912316.
- ^ Hammer, F.; Puech, M.; Chemin, L.; Flores, H.; Lehnert, M. D. (2007). "The Milky Way, an Exceptionally Quiet Galaxy: Implications for the Formation of Spiral Galaxies". The Astrophysical Journal 662 (1): 322–334. arXiv:astro-ph/0702585. Bibcode 2007ApJ...662..322H.doi:10.1086/516727.
- ^ Mutch, S.J.; Croton, D.J.; Poole, G.B. (2011). "The Mid-life Crisis of the Milky Way and M31". The Astrophysical Journal 736(2). arXiv:1105.2564. Bibcode 2011ApJ...736...84M.doi:10.1088/0004-637X/736/2/84.
- ^ Licquia, T.; Newman, J.A.; Poole, G.B. (2012). "What Is The Color Of The Milky Way?". American Astronomical Society.Bibcode 2012AAS...21925208L.
- ^ Krauss, L. M.; Chaboyer, B. (2003). "Age Estimates of Globular Clusters in the Milky Way: Constraints on Cosmology".Science 299 (5603): 65–69. Bibcode 2003Sci...299...65K.doi:10.1126/science.1075631. PMID 12511641.
- ^ Del Peloso, E. F. (2005). "The age of the Galactic thin disk from Th/Eu nucleocosmochronology". Astronomy and Astrophysics 440 (3): 1153. arXiv:astro-ph/0506458. Bibcode2005A&A...440.1153D. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20053307.
- ^ "Milky Way Galaxy is warped and vibrating like a drum"(Press release). University of California, Berkeley. January 9, 2006. Retrieved 2007-10-18.
- ^ Wong, Janet (April 14, 2000). "Astrophysicist maps out our own galaxy's end". University of Toronto. Archived from the original on 2007-01-08. Retrieved 2007-01-11.
- ^ Mark H. Jones, Robert J. Lambourne, David John Adams (2004). An Introduction to Galaxies and Cosmology. Cambridge University Press. p. 298. ISBN 0-521-54623-0.
- ^ Kocevski, D. D.; Ebeling, H. (2006). "On the origin of the Local Group's peculiar velocity". The Astrophysical Journal 645 (2): 1043–1053. arXiv:astro-ph/0510106. Bibcode2006ApJ...645.1043K. doi:10.1086/503666.
- ^ Peirani, S; Defreitaspacheco, J (2006). "Mass determination of groups of galaxies: Effects of the cosmological constant".New Astronomy 11 (4): 325. arXiv:astro-ph/0508614. Bibcode2006NewA...11..325P. doi:10.1016/j.newast.2005.08.008.
- ^ Jankowski, Connie (2010). Pioneers of Light and Sound. Compass Point Books. p. 6. ISBN 0-7565-4306-1.
- ^ Schiller, Jon (2010). Big Bang & Black Holes. CreateSpace. p. 163. ISBN 1-4528-6552-3.
- ^ Simpson, John; Weiner, Edmund, eds. (March 30, 1989). The Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press.ISBN 0198611862. See the entries for "Milky Way" and "galaxy".}}
- ^ Eratosthenes (1997). Condos, Theony. ed. Star Myths of the Greeks and Romans: A Sourcebook Containing the Constellations of Pseudo-Eratosthenes and the Poetic Astronomy of Hyginus. Red Wheel/Weiser.ISBN 1890482935.
- ^ Waller, William H.; Hodge, Paul W. (2003). "The Milky Way".Galaxies and the Cosmic Frontier. Harvard University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0-674-01079-5.
- ^ Fison, Alfred H. (1899). Recent Advances in Astronomy. Victorian era series. H. S. Stone. p. 49.
- ^ Jackson, A. M. T.; Enthoven, R. E. (1989). Folk Lore Notes. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0485-7. "... According to the Puranas, the milky way or akashganga is the celestial River Ganga which was brought down by Bhagirath ..."
- ^ Spencer, Hormusjee Shapoorjee (1965). The Aryan ecliptic cycle: glimpses into ancient Indo-Iranian religious history from 25628 B.C. to 292 A.D.. H. P. Vaswani. "... There are two "Gangas"—one terrestrial and the other "akashic" or celestial ... bear reference only to the "Akash Ganga" which is the Milky Way ..."
- ^ Sachau, Edward C. (2001). Alberuni's India: an account of the religion, philosophy, literature, geography, chronology, astronomy, customs, laws and astrology of India about A.D. 1030. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-24497-8. "... revolves around Kshira, i.e. the Milky Way ..."
- ^ a b Montada, Josep Puig (September 28, 2007). "Ibn Bajja".Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 2008-07-11.
- ^ Heidarzadeh, Tofigh (2008). A history of physical theories of comets, from Aristotle to Whipple. Springer. pp. 23–25. ISBN 1-4020-8322-X.
- ^ Mohamed, Mohaini (2000). Great Muslim Mathematicians. Penerbit UTM. pp. 49–50. ISBN 983-52-0157-9.
- ^ Bouali, Hamid-Eddine; Zghal, Mourad; Lakhdar, Zohra Ben (2005). "Popularisation of Optical Phenomena: Establishing the First Ibn Al-Haytham Workshop on Photography" (PDF). The Education and Training in Optics and Photonics Conference. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
- ^ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.[unreliable source?]
- ^ Livingston, John W. (1971). "Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah: A Fourteenth Century Defense against Astrological Divination and Alchemical Transmutation". Journal of the American Oriental Society (American Oriental Society) 91 (1): 96–103 .doi:10.2307/600445. JSTOR 600445.
- ^ Ragep, Jamil (1993). Nasir al-Din al-Tusi’s Memoir on Astronomy (al-Tadhkira fi `ilm al-hay’ a). New York: Springer-Verlag. p. 129.
- ^ O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E. F. (November 2002). "Galileo Galilei". University of St. Andrews. Retrieved 2007-01-08.
- ^ Evans, J. C. (November 24, 1998). "Our Galaxy". George Mason University. Retrieved 2007-01-04.
- ^ Abbey, Lenny. "The Earl of Rosse and the Leviathan of Parsontown". The Compleat Amateur Astronomer. Retrieved 2007-01-04.
- ^ Curtis, H. D. (1988). "Novae in spiral nebulae and the Island Universe Theory". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 100: 6–2. Bibcode 1988PASP..100....6C.doi:10.1086/132128.
- ^ Weaver, Harold F.. "Robert Julius Trumpler". National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 2007-01-05.
- ^ Hubble, E. P. (1929). "A spiral nebula as a stellar system, Messier 31". The Astrophysical Journal 69: 103–158. Bibcode1929ApJ....69..103H. doi:10.1086/143167.
- ^ Sandage, Allan (1989). "Edwin Hubble, 1889–1953".Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada 83 (6).Bibcode 1989JRASC..83..351S. Retrieved 2007-01-08.
- Thorsten Dambeck in Sky and Telescope, "Gaia's Mission to the Milky Way", March 2008, p. 36–39.
- Cristina Chiappini, The Formation and Evolution of the Milky Way, American Scientist, November/December 2001, pp. 506–515
- 3D Galaxy Map - a 3D representation of the Milky Way galaxy
- Basic Milky Way plan map - includes spiral arms and Orion spur
- Milky Way – IRAS (infrared) survey - wikisky.org
- Milky Way – H-Alpha survey - wikisky.org
- The Milky Way Galaxy - SEDS Messier website
- MultiWavelength Milky Way - NASA site with images and VRML models
- Milky Way Explorer - images in infrared with radio, microwave and hydrogen-alpha.
- Milky Way Video (02:37) - VISTA IR Telescope Image (October 24, 2012)< ref name ="Space-20121024">Staff (October 24, 2012). Amazing Photo Captures 84 Million Stars in Our Milky Way Galaxy. Space.com. Retrieved on October 25, 2012.</ref>
af:Melkweg am:ሚልኪ ዌይ ar:درب التبانة an:Carrera de Sant Chaime ast:Camín de Santiago gn:Mborevi Rape az:Süd Yolu bn:আকাশগঙ্গা zh-min-nan:Gîn-hô-hē be:Млечны Шлях be-x-old:Млечны Шлях bg:Млечен път bar:Muichstrossn bs:Mliječni put br:Hent Sant-Jakez (galaksienn) ca:Via Làctia cv:Хуркайăк çулĕ cs:Galaxie Mléčná dráha co:Strada di Roma cy:Llwybr Llaethog da:Mælkevejen de:Milchstraße et:Linnutee el:Γαλαξίας es:Vía Láctea eo:Lakta vojo eu:Esne Bidea fa:کهکشان راه شیری hif:Milky Way fr:Voie lactée fy:Molkewei ga:Bealach na Bó Finne gv:Raad Mooar Ree Gorree gl:Vía Láctea gu:આકાશઞંગા ko:우리 은하 hy:Ծիր Կաթին hi:आकाशगंगा hr:Mliječni put io:Lakto-voyo ilo:Nagririmpuok a Bitbituen id:Bima Sakti ia:Via Lactee os:Æрфæныфæд is:Vetrarbrautin it:Via Lattea he:שביל החלב jv:Bima Sakti kn:ಕ್ಷೀರಪಥ pam:Milky Way ka:ირმის ნახტომი kk:Құс жолы sw:Njia nyeupe ku:Kadiz lez:Карванд Рехъ la:Via Lactea lv:Piena Ceļš lb:Mëllechstrooss lt:Paukščių Takas li:Mèlkweeg hu:Tejútrendszer mk:Млечен Пат ml:ആകാശഗംഗ mt:Triq ta' Sant'Anna mr:आकाशगंगा ms:Bima Sakti mwl:Bie Látea mn:Тэнгэрийн заадас my:နဂါးငွေ့တန်း ဂယ်လက်ဆီ nah:Cītlalin īcue (Ilhuicamatiliztli) nl:Melkweg (sterrenstelsel) ne:आकाशगङ्गा new:मिल्की वे ja:銀河系 no:Melkeveien nn:Mjølkevegen nrm:C'mîns d'Saint Jacques nov:Milke-vie oc:Via Lactèa mhr:Кайыккомбо Корно pa:ਆਕਾਸ਼ਗੰਗਾ pnb:چٹا راہ pcd:Voe lactée nds:Melkstraat pl:Droga Mleczna pt:Via Láctea ro:Calea Lactee qu:Qullqaquyllur rue:Молочна дорога ru:Млечный Путь sah:Халлаан Сиигэ sco:Vatlant Streit sq:Rruga e Qumështit scn:Jolu di San Jàbbucu si:ක්ෂීරපථය simple:Milky Way sd:کيرائين واٽ ڪهڪشان sk:Galaxia (Mliečna cesta) sl:Rimska cesta (galaksija) ckb:ڕێگای شیری sr:Млечни пут sh:Mliječna staza su:Bima Saktisv:Vintergatan tl:Daang Magatas ta:பால் வழி tt:Киек Каз Юлы te:పాలపుంత th:ทางช้างเผือก tr:Samanyolu tk:Akmaýanyň Ýoly uk:Чумацький Шлях ur:جادہ شیر ug:سامان يولى سىستىمېسى za:Dahmbwn vi:Ngân Hà fiu-vro:Tsirgurada wa:Voye Sint-Djåke vls:Melkweg war:Gatasnon nga agianan yi:מילכיגער וועג zh-yue:銀河 bat-smg:Paukštiu Kel's zh:银河系
<ref>tags exist, but no
<references/>tag was found
<ref>tags exist for a group named "nb", but no corresponding
<references group="nb"/>tag was found.