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Scattered disc

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The scattered disc (or scattered disk) is a distant region of our solar system, thinly populated by icy minor planets known as scattered disc objects (SDOs), a subset of the broader family of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). The innermost portion of the scattered disc overlaps with the Kuiper belt, but its outer limits extend much farther away from the Sun and above and below the ecliptic than the belt proper.

Formation

The scattered disk is still poorly understood, although prevailing astronomical opinion suggests it was formed when Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) were "scattered" by gravitational interactions with the outer planets, principally Neptune, into highly eccentric and -inclined orbits. While the Kuiper belt is a relatively "round" and "flat" doughnut of space extending from about 30 AU to 44 AU with its member-objects locked in autonomously circular orbits (cubewanos) or mildly-elliptical resonant orbits (plutinos and twotinos), the scattered disc is by comparison a much more erratic milieu. SDOs can often, as in the case of Eris, travel almost as great a "vertical" distance as they do relative to what has come to be defined as "horizontal". Orbital simulations show SDO orbits may well be erratic and unstable and that the ultimate fate of these objects is to be permanently ejected from the core of the solar system into the Oort cloud or beyond.

There is an emerging sense that centaurs may simply be objects just like SDOs that were knocked inwards from the Kuiper belt rather than outwards, making them simply "cis-Neptunian" SDOs. Indeed, some objects like (29981) 1999 TD10 blur the distinction, and the Minor Planet Center (MPC) now lists centaurs and SDOs together.[1] In recognition of this blurring of categorization, some scientists use "scattered Kuiper belt object" (or SKBO) as an umbrella term for both centaurs and member bodies of the scattered disc.

Although the TNO 90377 Sedna is officially considered an SDO by the MPC, its discoverer Michael E. Brown has suggested that because its perihelion distance of 76 AU is too distant to be affected by the gravitational attraction of the outer planets it should be considered an inner Oort cloud object rather than a member of the scattered disk.[2] This line of thinking suggests that a lack of gravitational interaction with the outer planets disqualifies a TNO from scattered disc membership, which would create an outer edge somewhere between Sedna and more conventional SDOs like Eris. If Sedna is beyond the scattered disk, it may not be unique; 2000 CR105, which was discovered before Sedna, may also be an inner Oort cloud object or (more likely) a transitional object between the scattered disc and the inner Oort cloud.

Such objects, referred to as detached, have orbits which cannot be created by Neptune scattering. Instead, a number of explanations have been put forward including a passing star[3] or a distant, planet-sized object.[4] See Sedna.

Orbits

File:TheKuiperBelt 100AU SDO.svg

The first SDO to be recognized was (15874) 1996 TL66, first identified in 1996 by astronomers based at Mauna Kea. The first object presently classified as an SDO to be discovered was (48639) 1995 TL8, found by Spacewatch.

The diagram on the right illustrates the orbits of all known scattered disk objects up to 100AU together with Kuiper belt objects (in grey) and resonant objects (in green). The eccentricity of the orbits is represented by segments (extending from the perihelion to the aphelion) with the inclination represented on Y axis.

Perihelia

Typically, the scattered objects are characterised by orbits with medium and high eccentricities but their perihelia bring them no closer than 35AU, clear from direct influence of Neptune (red segments). Plutinos (grey segments for Pluto and Orcus) as well as resonant object at 2:5 (in green) can approach Neptune closer as their orbits are protected by resonances. This perihelion > 35 AU condition is actually one of the defining characteristics of scattered objects.

Extremes

The scattered disc is the place where extreme eccentricity and high inclination appears to be the norm and circular orbits are exceptional. Some exceptional orbits are plotted in yellow

  • 1999 TD10 has an orbit with extreme eccentricity (~0.9), bringing its perihelion near Saturn's orbit. This could qualify it as a centaur.
  • 2002 XU93 is currently the object with the highest inclination (~78°) in the Scattered Disc.
  • 2004 XR190 has the atypical, near circular (the short yellow segment) orbit, but it is highly inclined.

Some order in the chaos?

Resonant objects (shown in green), are not considered to be members of the scattered disk. Minor resonances are also populated and some computer simulations show that many objects could be actually on weak, higher order resonances (6:11,4:9,3:7,5:12,3:8,2:7,1:4). Quoting one of the researchers:[5] the scattered disk might not be so scattered after all.

Scattered objects versus classical objects

File:TheKuiperBelt 100AU SDO stats.svg

The inserts in the diagram on the right compare the eccentricity and inclination of the scattered disk population to the cubewanos. Each small coloured square represents a given range for both the eccentricity e and the inclination i. [6] The relative number of objects within the square is represented with cartographic colours[7] (from small numbers plotted as green valleys to brown peaks).

The two populations are very different: more than 30% of all cubewanos are on low inclination, near circular orbits (the low bottom corner 'peak') and their eccentricity peaks at 0.25. Scattered objects on the other hand are, well, scattered. The majority of the known population have medium eccentricity in 0.25-0.55. Two local peaks correspond to e in the 0.25--0.35 range, inclination 15-20° and e=0.5--0.55, low i<10° respectively. The extreme orbits show up as outliers in grey. Characteristically, there are no known SDO objects with eccentricity lower than 0.3 (with the exception of 2004 XR190).

It is the eccentricity, more than the orbit's inclination, that is the distinctive attribute of the family of scattered objects.

Orbit plots

File:TheKuiperBelt Projections 100AU Classical SDO.svg

More traditional, the graph on the left represents polar and ecliptic views of the (aligned) orbits of the scattered disk objects[8] (in black) on the background of cubewanos (in blue) and resonant (2:5) objects (in green). As yet unclassified objects in 50-100AU region are plotted in grey.[9]

The solid blue ring is not an artist's representation but a real plot of hundreds of overlapping orbits of the classical objects, fully deserving the name of the main (classical or cubewanos) belt. The minimum perihelion mentioned above is illustrated by the red circle. Unlike SDOs, the resonant objects approach Neptune’s orbit (in gold) .

On the ecliptic view, the arcs represent the same minimum perihelion[10] of 35AU (red) and Neptune’s orbit (at ~30AU, in yellow). As this view illustrates, the inclinations alone do not really distinguish SDO from the classical objects. Instead, the eccentricity is the distinctive attribute (long aphelion segments).


Detached objects, or an extended scattered disc?

File:TheKuiperBelt 550AU ESDO.svg

The recently discovered objects 2000 CR105 with a perihelion too far away from Neptune to be influenced by it, led to a discussion among astronomers about a new minor planet set, called the Extended scattered disc (E-SDO[11]). More recently, these objects are referred to as detached objects.[12] Preprint version (pdf)</ref>) or Distant Detached Objects (DDO[4]).

The classification suggested by Deep Ecliptic Survey team, introduces a formal distinction between Scattered-Near objects (which could be scattered by Neptune) from Scattered-Extended objects (e.g. 90377 Sedna) using Tisserand's parameter value of 3.[13]

The diagram illustrates all known scattered and detached objects together with the largest Kuiper belt objects for reference. The very large eccentricities of Sedna and (87269) 2000 OO67 are partly shown with the red segments, extending from the perihelion to the aphelion, well outside the diagram (>900AU and >1020AU respectively).

Noteworthy SDOs

List of Notable SDOs
Permanent
Designation
Provisional
Designation
Absolute magnitude Albedo Equatorial diameter
(km)
Semimajor axis
(AU)
Date discovered Discoverer Diameter method
Eris 2003 UB313 −1.12 0.86 ± 0.07 2400 ± 100 67.7 2003 M. Brown, C. Trujillo & D. Rabinowitz direct[14]
Sedna 2003 VB12 1.6 1180–1800 525.606 2003 M. Brown, C. Trujillo & D. Rabinowitz
84522 2002 TC302 3.9 > 0.03 < 1211 55.1 2002 NEAT thermal
2004 XR190 4.5 500-1000 57.5 2004 L. Allen
15874 1996 TL66 5.4 0.10? ~630 82.9 1996 D. Jewitt, J. Luu & J. Chen thermal
48639 1995 TL8 5.28 & 7.0 (binary) 0.09 assumed ~350 & ~160 52.2 1995 Spacewatch (A. Gleason) assumed albedo

References and footnotes

  1. List Of Centaurs and Scattered-Disk Objects at the IAU: Minor Planet Center
  2. Sedna at www.gps.caltech.edu
  3. Alessandro Morbidelli and Harold F. Levison Scenarios for the Origin of the Orbits of the Trans-Neptunian Objects 2000 CR105 and 2003 VB12 (Sedna) The Astronomical Journal, (2004) 128, pp 2564-2576. Preprint
  4. 4.0 4.1 Rodney S. Gomes, John J. Matese, and Jack J. Lissauer A Distant Planetary-Mass Solar Companion May Have Produced Distant Detached Objects To appear in Icarus (2006). Preprint
  5. Hahn J. Malhotra R.Neptune's migration into a stirred-up Kuiper Belt The Astronomical Journal, 130, pp.2392-2414, Nov.2005.Full text on arXiv.
  6. As near-circular orbits occupy the first column (e<0.05) and the orbits with the lowest inclination (i<5 degrees) occupy the lowest row, the square in the bottom left corner represents the number of near circular, very lowly inclined orbits.
  7. A grey square represents a single object (an outlier) in this range.
  8. Minor Planet Circular 2005-X77 Distant Minor planets was used for orbit classification. The updated data can be found in MPC 2006-D28.
  9. For roughly a half of known TNO the orbits are not yet known with the precision sufficient for the classification (a particularly delicate task for resonant objects).
  10. The precise value is not too important; the value of 35 AU is quoted for coherence with Jewitt 2006. Other authors prefer to use 30AU instead while the data used here appear to fit 34AU.
  11. Evidence for an Extended Scattered Disk? at Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur
  12. Jewitt, David C.; A. Delsanti (2006). “The Solar System Beyond The Planets”, Solar System Update : Topical and Timely Reviews in Solar System Sciences. Springer-Praxis Ed.. ISBN 3-540-26056-0.
  13. J. L. Elliot, S. D. Kern, K. B. Clancy, A. A. S. Gulbis, R. L. Millis, M. W. Buie, L. H. Wasserman, E. I. Chiang, A. B. Jordan, D. E. Trilling, and K. J. Meech The Deep Ecliptic Survey: A Search for Kuiper Belt Objects and Centaurs. II. Dynamical Classification, the Kuiper Belt Plane, and the Core Population. The Astronomical Journal, 129 (2006), pp. preprint
  14. http://www.gps.caltech.edu/~mbrown/papers/ps/xsize.pdf

See also

Template:Footer TransNeptunian

The minor planets
Vulcanoids | Near-Earth asteroids | Main belt | Jupiter Trojans | Centaurs | Damocloids | Comets | Trans-Neptunians (Kuiper belt · Scattered disc · Oort cloud)
For other objects and regions, see: asteroid groups and families, binary asteroids, asteroid moons and the Solar system
For a complete listing, see: List of asteroids. See also Pronunciation of asteroid names and Meanings of asteroid names.
 The Solar System v·d·e 
Solar System XXVII
The Sun · Mercury · Venus · Earth · Mars · Ceres* · Jupiter · Saturn · Uranus · Neptune · Pluto* · Eris* · Sedna*
Planets · Dwarf planets · Moons: Terran · Martian · Asteroidal · Jovian · Saturnian · Uranian · Neptunian · Plutonian · Eridian
Pluto' * Ceres * Eris * Haumea * Makemake
Small bodies:   Meteoroids · Asteroids (Asteroid belt) · Centaurs · TNOs (Kuiper belt/Scattered disc) · Comets (Oort cloud)
planets with '*' are dwarf's but listed between 'real planets'.
See also astronomical objects and the solar system's list of objects, sorted by radius or mass.

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